The genome of Theobroma cacao.

TitleThe genome of Theobroma cacao.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsArgout, Xavier, Salse Jerome, Aury Jean-Marc, Guiltinan Mark J., Droc Gaetan, Gouzy Jerome, Allegre Mathilde, Chaparro Cristian, Legavre Thierry, Maximova Siela N., Abrouk Michael, Murat Florent, Fouet Olivier, Poulain Julie, Ruiz Manuel, Roguet Yolande, Rodier-Goud Maguy, Barbosa-Neto Jose Fernandes, Sabot Francois, Kudrna Dave, Ammiraju Jetty Siva S., Schuster Stephan C., Carlson John E., Sallet Erika, Schiex Thomas, Dievart Anne, Kramer Melissa, Gelley Laura, Shi Zi, Bérard Aurélie, Viot Christopher, Boccara Michel, Risterucci Ange Marie, Guignon Valentin, Sabau Xavier, Axtell Michael J., Ma Zhaorong, Zhang Yufan, Brown Spencer, Bourge Mickael, Golser Wolfgang, Song Xiang, Clement Didier, Rivallan Ronan, Tahi Mathias, Akaza Joseph Moroh, Pitollat Bertrand, Gramacho Karina, D'Hont Angélique, Brunel Dominique, Infante Diogenes, Kebe Ismael, Costet Pierre, Wing Rod, McCombie Richard W., Guiderdoni Emmanuel, Quetier Francis, Panaud Olivier, Wincker Patrick, Bocs Stephanie, and Lanaud Claire
JournalNature genetics
Date Published2011 Feb
KeywordsCacao, Cell Nucleus, DNA, DNA Transposable Elements, Evolution, Molecular, Gene Expression Regulation, Plant, Genes, Plant, Genome, Plant, Genotype, Homozygote, In Situ Hybridization, Models, Genetic, Quantitative Trait Loci

We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. This assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of these genes anchored on the 10 T. cacao chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example, flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for T. cacao improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten T. cacao chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions.

Alternate JournalNat. Genet.