Genomic analysis of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.

TitleGenomic analysis of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsAmselem, Joelle, Cuomo Christina A., van Kan Jan A. L., Viaud Muriel, Benito Ernesto P., Couloux Arnaud, Coutinho Pedro M., de Vries Ronald P., Dyer Paul S., Fillinger Sabine, Fournier Elisabeth, Gout Lilian, Hahn Matthias, Kohn Linda, Lapalu Nicolas, Plummer Kim M., Pradier Jean-Marc, Quévillon Emmanuel, Sharon Amir, Simon Adeline, ten Have Arjen, Tudzynski Bettina, Tudzynski Paul, Wincker Patrick, Andrew Marion, Anthouard Véronique, Beever Ross E., Beffa Rolland, Benoit Isabelle, Bouzid Ourdia, Brault Baptiste, Chen Zehua, Choquer Mathias, Collémare Jérome, Cotton Pascale, Danchin Etienne G., Da Silva Corinne, Gautier Angélique, Giraud Corinne, Giraud Tatiana, Gonzalez Celedonio, Grossetete Sandrine, Güldener Ulrich, Henrissat Bernard, Howlett Barbara J., Kodira Chinnappa, Kretschmer Matthias, Lappartient Anne, Leroch Michaela, Levis Caroline, Mauceli Evan, Neuvéglise Cécile, Oeser Birgitt, Pearson Matthew, Poulain Julie, Poussereau Nathalie, Quesneville Hadi, Rascle Christine, Schumacher Julia, Ségurens Béatrice, Sexton Adrienne, Silva Evelyn, Sirven Catherine, Soanes Darren M., Talbot Nicholas J., Templeton Matt, Yandava Chandri, Yarden Oded, Zeng Qiandong, Rollins Jeffrey A., Lebrun Marc-Henri, and Dickman Marty
JournalPLoS genetics
Date Published2011 Aug
KeywordsAscomycota, Botrytis, DNA Transposable Elements, Genes, Fungal, Genome, Fungal, Genomics, Phylogeny, Plant Diseases, Synteny

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi notable for their wide host ranges and environmental persistence. These attributes have made these species models for understanding the complexity of necrotrophic, broad host-range pathogenicity. Despite their similarities, the two species differ in mating behaviour and the ability to produce asexual spores. We have sequenced the genomes of one strain of S. sclerotiorum and two strains of B. cinerea. The comparative analysis of these genomes relative to one another and to other sequenced fungal genomes is provided here. Their 38-39 Mb genomes include 11,860-14,270 predicted genes, which share 83% amino acid identity on average between the two species. We have mapped the S. sclerotiorum assembly to 16 chromosomes and found large-scale co-linearity with the B. cinerea genomes. Seven percent of the S. sclerotiorum genome comprises transposable elements compared to <1% of B. cinerea. The arsenal of genes associated with necrotrophic processes is similar between the species, including genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and oxalic acid production. Analysis of secondary metabolism gene clusters revealed an expansion in number and diversity of B. cinerea-specific secondary metabolites relative to S. sclerotiorum. The potential diversity in secondary metabolism might be involved in adaptation to specific ecological niches. Comparative genome analysis revealed the basis of differing sexual mating compatibility systems between S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. The organization of the mating-type loci differs, and their structures provide evidence for the evolution of heterothallism from homothallism. These data shed light on the evolutionary and mechanistic bases of the genetically complex traits of necrotrophic pathogenicity and sexual mating. This resource should facilitate the functional studies designed to better understand what makes these fungi such successful and persistent pathogens of agronomic crops.

Alternate JournalPLoS Genet.